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Propaganda techniques and how to counter them

24/11/2011

If a person gave your body to any stranger he met on his way, you would be angry.
Why then do you feel no shame in handing over your mind to be confused and mystified by anyone who tries to persuade you for his own advantage? – A.C. Grayling (2011) The good book: a humanist bible (p.23)

1.0 How I became interested in propaganda

It was on Thursday 6 February 2003 that I settled in front of my TV to watch a direct telecast of United States Secretary of State Colin Luther Powell’s appearance before the UN Security Council to "prove" the urgency to wage a war with Iraq. My interest with propaganda began to flower with his feeble nonsensical presentation. I recall thinking of Hans Christian Andersen’s  tale ‘The Emperor’s New Clothes’ about two weavers who promise an emperor a new suit of clothes that are invisible to those unfit for their positions, stupid, or incompetent. When the emperor parades before his subjects in his new clothes, a child cries out, "But he isn’t wearing anything at all!" I was that child crying out "He’s lying. There is not a grain of truth to his entire presentation. None at all."

Powell’s lies to the Council included a computer-generated image of an alleged mobile production facility for biological weapons of mass destruction. He showed photos of a poison and explosives training camp in northeast Iraq. When the camp was visited by a British journalist two days later, all that was found were a few dilapidated buildings and no evidence or signs of any terrorist activity, chemical or explosives or otherwise. Yet, Powell succeeded in hardening the overall tone of the United Nations towards Iraq.

Our leaders made a discovery of the sort that changes the destiny of nations – that they can successfully lie to us. Big lies! They lie to us constantly – because lies work as well or even better than facts do. Repeating lies works.

The political elite decided to change the world by using their spin machine to create visions of mushroom clouds over cities in the minds of a gullible public to craft a believable storyline for the invasion of Iraq. A willingly pliant press spread the misinformation about weapons of mass destruction and Al Qaeda connections to fashion a convincing plot for pre-emptive war on a sovereign state.

It was nine days later, 15 February 2003, when I was one of some two million people who took the anti-war message onto London’s streets. History was made with the largest ever political demonstration. The city came to a standstill – some couldn’t even reach London due to the sheer throng of people. Special trains brought thousands from Manchester, Liverpool, and elsewhere.

That evening Tony Blair told the nation that the protestors had blood on their hands!

2.0 Propaganda and Power

The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country… We are governed, our minds are moulded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons…who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind. ~ Edward Bernays, Propaganda , 1928

Bernays had it figured out some 84 years ago before mass media, television, or spin doctors. His vision of a society manipulated by a small number of governing elite who believe they know better than the masses has come to fruition. Manipulation of the masses through a relentless never ending barrage of propaganda disguised as news and unremitting false advertising. We are given the illusion of free choice, when in reality the choices are being made for us by a chosen few who think they know what is best. These puppeteers controlling the strings inhabit the financial, government and corporate halls of power. Their purpose is not to benefit society and its citizens but to protect their wealth and influence, using any means at their disposal. Propaganda to control the minds of a wilfully uninformed public has been their most potent weapon.

Most people have never heard the name Edward Bernays, and that’s the way public relations specialists like it. They operate in the shadows, subtly influencing public opinion through what Bernays referred to as the method of “engineering of consent.” The governing elite have no time for messy processes like true capitalism or non-manipulated free elections. The objective for Bernays and his ilk has always been to provide corrupt government power brokers, shadowy bankers and corporate media kingpins with potent psychological instruments of social persuasion and mind control.

Edward Bernays is considered the "father of public relations," and he was the nephew of Sigmund Freud. He pioneered media manipulation techniques. He understood the human mind and developed methods and processes for taking advantage of an unaware populace.

Bernays got his big break during the administration of Woodrow Wilson. He began work for the Committee on Public Information, the immense propaganda machine ordered by Woodrow Wilson to sway the American public towards a war he had campaigned to keep the US out of. Bernays became so instrumental that he was invited to accompany Wilson to the Paris peace conference. His claims to fame afterward included:

Creating a false storyline of communists in Guatemala on behalf of his client United Fruit Company, resulting in a CIA led military coup which ushered in a brutal dictatorship resulting in the dislocation, torture and death of thousands.

He was responsible for breaking the taboo of women smoking in public while working for American Tobacco Company.

His biggest claim to fame was inspiring the most reviled propagandist in history. Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi propaganda minister, made copious use of Bernays’ book, "Propaganda" throughout the Holocaust. The German people were gradually indoctrinated by their government through propaganda into consenting and supporting the most horrific crimes in history.

Bernays was a master of using psychological techniques to mask the motives of his clients, as part of a calculated strategy aimed at keeping the public unaware of the forces that were working to mould their psyches. Bernays died in 1995, but his techniques have been taken to a new level as governments, media and financial elite use any means at their disposal to keep the masses sedated and content while they are fleeced. The corporate public relations maggots manage and manipulate the opinions of the many in order to make sure a true democratic system doesn’t threaten the privileges and supremacy of the governing elite.

Consider the rise of an industry designed to manipulate and control the thoughts and opinions of an unaware populace. People are led and told what to believe by storylines supplied by authority figures and media pundits. Bernays and his disciples understood this dynamic and have been able to utilize corporate mass media and the human propensity to trust the judgments of authority figures to control and manage the populace without them knowing it. People want to go with the crowd, or follow the leader. To do otherwise requires independent thought and the willingness to be ostracised, which is an unbearable psychological burden for many if not most.   

If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, it is now possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without them knowing it. ~ Edward Bernays

The propaganda techniques employed to manipulate the masses seemed less abhorrent when they centred upon just consumer products. Convincing women they would look like a gorgeous model if they used a company’s cosmetics or convincing a man he’d be admired by his neighbours if he drove a certain car was small potatoes. In the last few decades the misinformation and outright lies fed to the public by oligarchy of governing elite has become more manifest and repugnant.

The public has been lured into debt by the incessant unrelenting lifestyle marketing messages spewed from our TVs. Wealth, materialism, and consumerism became the motivating force. There was only one thing left to do – loan them the money to live the dream. Not only have the governing elite lured the masses into debt slavery, but they’ve convinced them to love their slavery.

Propaganda uses information (words, images, sounds, etc.) to manipulate people’s behaviour or beliefs. Regardless of whether the message is true or false, it is always manipulative. The target of a successful propagandist will feel that s/he has made a voluntary choice, even though s/he was never given a chance to do so.

Most people think of propaganda as synonymous with lies. And while any piece of propaganda can convey a lie, the best is usually true – true in that the specific things it says are true, even though its implications (the message(s) people take away from it) may be false.

For example, the CEOs of U.S. tobacco companies testified before a Congressional committee, raised their right hands and swore to tell the truth, then proceeded to say repeatedly that they believed nicotine was non-addictive. The key word here is ‘believe.’ However, their intended message, that conveyed by the weight of their testimony, their companies’ advertising and the positions they’d taken in courts throughout the land, was that smoking was not harmful. Given the evidence produced in their own research labs, and those of independent researchers, they could not honestly say that it was safe; only that they believed it to be so. It is a subtle but important difference. They knew that people listening to them would hear what they wanted them to, even though they hadn’t actually said it. Intangibles like body language, tone of voice, facial expressions, explain why many people ended up hearing something different to that said.

This type of behaviour is a major tool in the propagandists’ arsenal. The specific things one says are true, but the larger message one wants the listener to take away is not. If pressed, or taken to court, the propagandist can plead innocence and apologize for any misunderstandings; but they can do it in a way that maintains the big lie.

Propaganda connotes the dissemination of information for the purposes of persuasion and advocating an agenda by spin and disinformation. While the issue of propaganda often is discussed in the context of militarism, war and war-mongering, it is, in fact, around us in all aspects of life.

During and after World War II the world witnessed the power of Nazi propaganda, especially their use of film, to promote anti-Semitism and the horrific consequences of that message. It was then that communicators distanced themselves from the concept of propaganda and the word became a pejorative. Therefore our advertisers, marketers, public relations officials and public information officers no longer call their product propaganda. Nevertheless, that is what it remains.

How can the ability to identify and understand basic propaganda techniques empower you to make better informed decisions?

Have you have ever been excited to purchase an item, partake in an activity, or follow a course of action, only to find yourself disappointed by the outcome? Why did you specifically make the decision that you did? What led you to make the decision?

The best way for the individual not to be manipulated into making decisions not in their best interest is to understand propaganda techniques.

3.0 Elements of propaganda

3.1 Control of the media

The dominant media are profit-seeking businesses funded largely by advertisers who want their ads to appear in a supportive selling environment. The media are also dependent on government and major business firms as information sources, and both efficiency and political considerations, and frequently overlapping interests, cause a degree of solidarity to prevail among the government, major media, and other corporate businesses. Government and large non-media business firms are also best positioned (and sufficiently wealthy) to be able to pressure the media with threats of withdrawal of advertising or TV licenses, libel suits, and other direct and indirect modes of attack.

These factors linked together reflect the multi-levelled capability of the all powerful arcane, interconnected world of multinational corporations, government departments, think tanks and collectives to exert power over the flow of information.
The corporate media is structured in a way that protects and furthers the interests of state-corporate power.

The most damaging and far reaching use of propaganda, misinformation and outright scare tactics by the financial and political elites was during the financial meltdown during the months September and October of 2008.

For any propaganda to survive and flourish, the media needs to be controlled. This maxim applies specifically in the case of war. For example, during the Iraq War of 2003 the key tactic was to embed some 775 reporters and photographers travelling as embedded journalists. When asked why the military decided to embed journalists with the troops, Lt. Col. Rick Long of the U.S. Marine Corps replied,

Frankly, our job is to win the war. Part of that is information warfare. So we are going to attempt to dominate the information environment.

Those journalists depended on the army for their food, shelter and protection, and that enabled the propagandist country to get its message across. Thus, by controlling the flow of information, the desired objectives can be achieved.

If the mass media (electronic and print) gets the bulk of its money from business advertisers and in the case of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) from the Australian government with some revenue from its retail outlets, how likely do you think it is that the mass media will tell the truth about any horrible things those advertisers and government might be doing?

3.2 Emotional appeal

We perpetuate war by exalting its sacrifices. Make war look noble and many will be eager to be sent to war. And many “leaders” will be eager to send them. – Paddy Chayefsky

Propaganda generally has a human face, and an emotional appeal in order to gain public support. Every big media event needs what journalists refer to as ‘the hook.’ An ideal hook becomes the central element of a story that makes it newsworthy, evokes a strong emotional response, and sticks in the memory. In the case of the Gulf War, the ‘hook’ was invented by Hill & Knowlton. In style, substance and mode of delivery, it bore an uncanny resemblance to England’s WWI hearings that accused German soldiers of killing Belgian babies.

The fabricated story of babies torn from their incubators was repeated over and over again. President Bush told the story. It was recited as fact in Congressional testimony, on TV and radio talk shows, and at the UN Security Council. Of all the accusations made against Saddam Hussein none had more impact on public opinion than that of Iraqi soldiers removing 312 babies from their incubators and leaving them to die on the cold hospital floors of Kuwait City.

Similarly, the Australian immigration minister Philip Ruddock in 2001 claimed that Iraqi asylum seekers on a boat bound for Australia had thrown their children overboard to force naval ships patrolling the area to rescue and take them to Australian territory. This lie was told by the prime minister and repeated as fact by the media to crystallise public hostility toward asylum seekers in a racially charged election campaign.

3.3 Keep off certain issues and Imagery

The aim is to divert attention from troublesome issues and reveal only partial facts. In 1918, US Senator Hiram Warren Johnson is purported to have said: "The first casualty when war comes is truth."

Imagery is an important element of propaganda especially when language can be a barrier. Images provide a realistic angle to propaganda and the impact of such messages is usually strong. For example, some 100 cameras were embedded in vehicles of the soldiers during the Iraq War and videos were distributed to the media to propagate the message.

3.4 Simplicity and Repetition

The two world wars used  propaganda art on a massive scale. Governments disseminated their information by means of the emerging medias: cinema, radio and the high speed high volume printing of posters and newspapers. Whereas in recent times this has broadened to the omnipresent television and internet.

Mythical numbers are passed on by officials, newspapers, research groups that have no basis in fact. One cannot assume that a number used by a variety of people is approximately correct. This suggests that the quality of official data is a function of its importance to those who use it. Numbers without purpose are numbers without quality.

Nazi propaganda is a classic example of how to achieve political ends especially by their use of film, to promote anti-Semitism. Propaganda for the masses had to be simple, and appeal to the emotions. To maintain its simplicity, it had to put over just a few main points, which then had to be repeated many times.

4.0 Recognizing Propaganda Techniques and Errors of Faulty Logic

4.1 Name-calling/Stereotyping

This technique consists of linking a person, or idea, to a negative symbol, and attaching a negative label to a person or thing. The propagandist who uses this technique hopes that the audience will reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence. People engage in this type of behaviour when they are trying to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in, they prefer to try to tear their opponent(s) down.

4.2 Glittering generalities

This technique uses important-sounding "glad words" that have little or no real meaning. These words are used in general statements that cannot be proved or
disproved. Words like "good," "honest," "fair," and "best" are examples of "glad" words.

The glittering generality is name-calling in reverse. While name-calling seeks to make us form a judgment to reject and condemn without examining the evidence, the glittering generality device seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence.

4.3 Euphemisms

In certain situations the propagandist attempts to pacify the audience in order to make an unpleasant reality more palatable. This is accomplished by using words that are bland and euphemistic. Since war is particularly unpleasant, military discourse is full of euphemisms. In the 1940s, America changed the name of the War Department to the Department of Defence. Under the Reagan Administration, the MX-Missile was renamed "The Peacekeeper." During war-time, civilian casualties are referred to as "collateral damage," and the word "liquidation" is used as a synonym for "murder."

In the wake of the first world war, traumatized veterans were said to be suffering from "shell shock." The short, vivid phrase conveys the horrors of battle – one can practically hear the shells exploding overhead. After the second world war, people began to use the term "combat fatigue" to characterize the same condition. The phrase is a bit more pleasant, but it still acknowledges combat as the source of discomfort. In the wake of the Vietnam War, people referred to "post-traumatic stress disorder": a phrase that is completely disconnected from the reality of war altogether.

4.4 Transfer

Transfer is a device by which the propagandist carries over the authority, sanction, and prestige of something we respect and revere to something he would have us accept. For example, most of us respect and revere our church and our nation. If the propagandist succeeds in getting church or nation to approve a campaign in behalf of some program, he thereby transfers its authority, sanction, and prestige to that programme.

In the transfer device, symbols are constantly used. The cross represents the Christian Church. The flag represents the nation. Such symbols stir emotions. At their very sight, with the speed of light, is aroused the whole complex of feelings we have with respect to church or nation. Thus, the transfer device is used both for and against causes and ideas.

When a political activist closes her speech with a public prayer, she is attempting to transfer religious prestige to the ideas that she is advocating. In a similar fashion, propagandists may attempt to transfer the reputation of "Science" or "Medicine" to a particular project or set of beliefs.

4.5 Testimonial

Dawn Fraser recommends the Circulation Booster – calling it "Absolutely brilliant." Ricky Ponting promotes motor oil, watches, vitamin pills.

This is the classic misuse of the Testimonial Device that comes to the minds of most of us when we hear the term. We recall it indulgently and tell ourselves how much more sophisticated we are than our grandparents or even our parents.

With our next breath, we begin a sentence, ‘The Age said…,’ ‘The Prime minister said…,’ ‘My doctor said…,’ ‘Our minister said…’ Some of these Testimonials may merely give greater emphasis to a legitimate and accurate idea, a fair use of the device; others, however, may represent the sugar-coating of a distortion, a falsehood, a misunderstood notion, an anti-social suggestion.

4.6 Plain Folks

By using the plain-folks technique, speakers attempt to convince their audience that they, and their ideas, are "of the people." The device is used by advertisers and politicians alike.

Australia’s politicians go to great lengths to present themselves as ordinary citizens.

4.7 Bandwagon

The basic theme of the Band Wagon appeal is that "everyone else is doing it, and so should you." Since few of us want to be left behind, this technique can be quite successful.

4.8 Fear

The streets of our country are in turmoil. The universities are filled with students rebelling and rioting. Communists are seeking to destroy our country. Russia is threatening us with her might, and the Republic is in danger. Yes – danger from within and without. We need law and order! Without it our nation cannot survive. ~ Adolf Hitler, 1932

When a propagandist warns members of her audience that disaster will result if they do not follow a particular course of action, she is using the fear appeal. By playing on the audience’s deep-seated fears, practitioners of this technique hope to redirect attention away from the merits of a particular proposal and toward steps that can be taken to reduce the fear.

In the past decade the US and its allies have killed, maimed, dislocated, and made widows and orphans millions of Muslims in six countries, all in the name of the “war on terror.”  These attacks impact primarily civilian populations and infrastructure.

If we look around for the terror that the police state and a decade of war has allegedly protected us from, the terror is hard to find. It is extraordinary that so many Australian citizens actually believe that they are threatened by Muslim peoples who have no unity, no navy, no air force, no nuclear weapons, no missiles capable of reaching across the oceans.

4.9 Either/or fallacy

This technique is also called "black-and-white thinking" because only two
choices are given. You are either for something or against it; there is no middle ground or shades of grey. It is used to polarize issues, and negates all attempts to find a common ground.

4.10 Faulty Cause and Effect

This technique suggests that because B follows A, A must cause B. Remember, just because two events or two sets of data are related does not necessarily mean that one caused the other to happen. It is important to evaluate data carefully before jumping to a wrong conclusion. 

5.0 Propaganda as advertising

Although few people admit to being influenced by ads, surveys and sales figures show that a well-designed advertising campaign has dramatic effects. A logical conclusion is that advertising works below the level of conscious awareness and it works even on those who claim immunity to its message.

A person unaware of advertising’s claim on him or her is precisely the one most defenceless against the adwriter’s attack. Advertisers delight in an audience which believes ads to be harmless nonsense, for such an audience is rendered defenceless by its belief that there is no attack taking place.

The "claim" is the verbal or print part of an ad that makes some claim of superiority for the product being advertised. The reason so many ad claims fall into the category of pseudo-information is that they are applied to parity products, products in which all or most of the brands available are nearly identical. Since no one superior product exists, advertising is used to create the illusion of superiority. The largest advertising budgets are devoted to parity products such as petrol, soft drinks, soaps, and headache and cold remedies.

The first rule of parity involves the use of the words "better" and "best." In parity claims, "better" means "best" and "best" means "equal to." If all the brands are identical, they must all be equally good. So "best" means that the product is as good as the other superior products in its category.

The word "better" has been interpreted to be a comparative and therefore becomes a clear claim of superiority. The only time "better" can be used is when a product does indeed have superiority over other products in its category or when the better is used to compare the product with something other than competing brands. An orange juice could therefore claim to be "better than a vitamin pill," or "the better breakfast drink."

The second rule of advertising claims is that if a product is truly superior, the ad will say so and offer evidence of the superiority. If an ad hedges the least bit about a product’s advantage over the competition you can suspect it is not superior–may be equal to but not better. You will never hear a petrol company say "we will give you four kilometres per litre more than any other brand." They would love to make such a claim, but it would not be true. Petrol is a parity product, and, in spite of some clever and deceptive ads, no one has yet claimed one brand of petrol better than any other brand.

To create the necessary illusion of superiority, advertisers usually resort to one or more of the following techniques.

5.1 The Weasel Claim: words or claims that appear substantial upon first look but disintegrate into hollow meaninglessness on analysis. Commonly used weasel words include: "helps" (the champion weasel); "like" (used in a comparative sense); "virtual" or "virtually"; "acts" or "works"; "can be"; "up to"; "as much as"; "refreshes"; "comforts"; "tackles"; "fights"; "come on"; "the feel of"; "the look of"; "looks like"; "fortified"; "enriched"; and "strengthened."

● "Helps control dandruff symptoms with regular use." The weasels include "helps control," and possibly even "symptoms" and "regular use." The claim is not "stops dandruff."
● "Leaves dishes virtually spotless." You are supposed to think "spotless," rather than "virtually" spotless.
● "Only half the price of many colour sets." "Many" is the weasel. The claim is supposed to give the impression that the set is inexpensive.

5.2 The Unfinished Claim: the ad claims the product is better, or has more of something, but does not finish the comparison.

● "Magnavox gives you more." More of what?
● "Anacin: Twice as much of the pain reliever doctors recommend most." This claim fits in a number of categories but it does not say twice as much of what pain reliever.
● "Coffee-mate gives coffee more body, more flavour." Also note that "body" and "flavour" are weasels.

5.3 The "We’re Different and Unique Claim: states that there is nothing else quite like the product being advertised.

● "There’s no other mascara like it."
● "Cougar is like nobody else’s car."
● "Either way, liquid or spray, there’s nothing else like it."

5.4 The Water is Wet" Claim: says something about the product that is true for any brand in that product category.

● "Mobil: the Detergent petrol." Any petrol acts as a cleaning agent.
● "Rheingold, the natural beer." Made from grains and water as are other beers.
● "SKIN smells differently on everyone." As do many perfumes.

5.5 The "So What" Claim: to which the reader will react with "So What?"

● "Geritol has more than twice the iron of ordinary supplements." But is twice as much beneficial to the body?

● "Campbell’s gives you tasty pieces of chicken and not one but two chicken stocks." Does the presence of two stocks improve the taste?
● "Strong enough for a man but made for a woman." This deodorant claims says only that the product is aimed at the female market.

5.6 The Vague Claim: is simply not clear.

● "Lips have never looked so luscious." Can you imagine trying to either prove or disprove such a claim?
● "Lipsavers are fun–they taste good, smell good and feel good."
● "Its deep rich lather makes hair feel good again."

5.7 The Endorsement or Testimonial Claim: a celebrity or authority appears in an ad to lend his or her stellar qualities to the product.

● "Joan Fontaine throws a shot-in-the-dark party and her friends learn a thing or two." ● "Darling, have you discovered Masterpiece? The most exciting men I know are smoking it." (Eva Gabor)
● "Vega is the best handling car in the U.S." This claim was challenged by the FTC, but GM answered that the claim is only a direct quote from Road and Track magazine.

5.8 The Scientific or Statistical Claim: uses some sort of scientific proof or experiment, very specific numbers, or an impressive sounding mystery ingredient.

● "Easy-Off has 33% more cleaning power than another popular brand." "Another popular brand" often translates as some other kind of oven cleaner sold somewhere. Also the claim does not say Easy-Off works 33% better.
● "Special Morning–33% more nutrition." Also an unfinished claim.
● "Sinarest. Created by a research scientist who actually gets sinus headaches."

5.9 The "Compliment the Consumer" Claim: butters up the consumer by some form of flattery.

● "If what you do is right for you, no matter what others do, then RC Cola is right for you."
● "The lady has taste."
● "You’ve come a long way, baby."

5.10 The Rhetorical Question: demands a response from the audience.

● "Plymouth–isn’t that the kind of car America wants?"
● "Shouldn’t your family be drinking Hawaiian Punch?"
● "What do you want most from coffee? That’s what you get most from Hills."

6. Ethos: A Time for Change (2011)

This documentary explores the kind of mass psychological manipulation that Freud’s nephew, Edward Bernays invented to convince Americans that it was a good idea to get involved in World War One, as well as convince women that they’d become socially powerful if they smoked cigarettes.

Directed by filmmaker Pete McGrain and hosted by Academy Award nominated actor and activist Woody Harrelson, Ethos: A Time for Change, explains how our country is controlled by some very wealthy families and not our chosen government. These families control the main pillars of our society which include; politics, corporations, banks and the media. The United States is framed as a democracy, suggesting that we the people govern our country and elect our officials, but the truth of that matter is that a democracy does not exist. Rather, the nation was designed to be a polyarchy, one that is ruled by many, those many being the key families. By structuring the country this way, it was premeditated that ultimately it would not matter who is in office because the people campaigning would be controlled and influenced by those controlling the money.

Those featured in the film include renowned historians such as Noam Chomsky (Manufacturing Dissent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media), Chalmers Johnson (Blowback: The Sorrows of Empire), Howard Zinn (A People’s History of the United States), the CEO’s of massive corporations such as Goodyear and Interface, as well as filmmaker Michael Moore.

Buy Ethos: A Time for Change on Amazon.com

© 2012 Alfred L. C. van Amelsvoort Ph.D

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